Wladyslaw Skoczylas
Taniec (Dance) wood engraving

Mary Sulinow
(b. middle 19th century)

Mary Sulinow is the great grandmother of Susan Lynn Baxter, Jeffrey P. Baxter, and Thomas Alan Baxter.

Except for her name, we know nothing about the specifics of Mary Sulinow's life. However, we do know that during her lifetime, Russian tried to obliterate Polish culture.

As part of their Country Studies Program, the Library of Congress describes the situation:

    Increasing oppression at Russian hands after failed national uprisings finally convinced Polish leaders that insurrection was premature at best and perhaps fundamentally misguided and counterproductive. During the decades that followed the January Insurrection, Poles largely forsook the goal of immediate independence and turned instead to fortifying the nation through the subtler means of education, economic development, and modernization. This approach took the name Organic Work for its philosophy of strengthening Polish society at the grass roots. For some, the adoption of Organic Work meant permanent resignation to foreign rule, but many advocates recommended it as a strategy to combat repression while awaiting an eventual opportunity to achieve self-government.

    Not nearly as colorful as the rebellions nor as loftily enshrined in national memory, the quotidian methods of Organic Work proved well suited to the political conditions of the later nineteenth century. The international balance of forces did not favor the recovery of statehood when both Russia and Germany appeared bent on the eventual eradication of Polish national identity. The German Empire, established in 1871 as an expanded version of the Prussian state, aimed at the assimilation of its eastern provinces inhabited by Poles. At the same time, St. Petersburg attempted to Russify the former Congress Kingdom, joining Berlin in levying restrictions against use of the Polish language and cultural expression. Poles under Russian and German rule also endured official campaigns against the Roman Catholic Church: the Cultural Struggle (Kulturkampf) of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to bring the Roman Catholic Church under state control and the Russian campaign to extend Orthodoxy throughout the empire.




Jacob Koronkiewicz


Michael Korenkiewicz

Website Maintained by

Steven L. Berg, PhD
Last updated on 9 August 2016.