"Poland's future was sealed by Napoleon's abortive expedition against Russia in 1812 and the battle of nations lost by France at Leipzig (1813), during which Prince Jozef Poniatowski, the Commander-in-Chief of the Duchy's Army, died a heroic death. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 relinquished part of the Duchy, together with Poznan, over to Prussia. The remaining lands were turned into the Kingdom of Poland, tied with Russia. Tsar Alexander I became King."

Jacob Koronkiewicz
(b. middle 19th century)

Jacob Koronkiewicz is the great grandfather of Susan Lynn Baxter, Jeffrey P. Baxter, and Thomas Alan Baxter.

Except for his name, we know nothing else about Jacob Koronkiewicz. But we do know about the Poland in which he lived.

Although the Prussians and Austrians enfranchised peasants, these reforms did not spread to the Kingdom of Poland. Religious and national demonstrations turned into an uprising in January 1863. An underground national government issued decrees, collected taxes, and conducted other affairs of state. Unfortunately for the Polish Kingdom, Romuald Traugutt, the last leader of the underground government, was hanged on August 5, 1864.

After the fall of the revolution, Tsar Alexander II placed tighter controls on the Kingdom and education became more Russified. He also limited the rights of the Catholic Church.

In 1910, shortly before Jacob's son Michael immigrated to the United States of America, "the Polish Kingdom, Galicia and the Grand Duchy of Poland were inhabited by about 22.5 million people, with Poles making up some 75% of the population."

The source for the information in the biographical sketch is:
"A Brief History of Poland: Part 9." Polonia Today Online. Accessed: 9 August 2016.




Mary Sulinow


Michael Korenkiewicz

Website Maintained by

Steven L. Berg, PhD
Last updated on 9 August 2016.